# Tag: representations

“Ne pleure pas, Alfred ! J’ai besoin de tout mon courage pour mourir à vingt ans!”

We all remember the last words of Evariste Galois to his brother Alfred. Lesser known are the mathematical results contained in his last letter, written to his friend Auguste Chevalier, on the eve of his fatal duel. Here the final sentences :

Tu prieras publiquement Jacobi ou Gauss de donner leur avis non sur la verite, mais sur l’importance des theoremes.
Apres cela il se trouvera, j’espere, des gens qui trouvent leur profis a dechiffrer tout ce gachis.
Je t’embrasse avec effusion.
E. Galois, le 29 Mai 1832

A major result contained in this letter concerns the groups $L_2(p)=PSL_2(\mathbb{F}_p)$, that is the group of $2 \times 2$ matrices with determinant equal to one over the finite field $\mathbb{F}_p$ modulo its center. $L_2(p)$ is known to be simple whenever $p \geq 5$. Galois writes that $L_2(p)$ cannot have a non-trivial permutation representation on fewer than $p+1$ symbols whenever $p > 11$ and indicates the transitive permutation representation on exactly $p$ symbols in the three ‘exceptional’ cases $p=5,7,11$.

Let $\alpha = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}$ and consider for $p=5,7,11$ the involutions on $\mathbb{P}^1_{\mathbb{F}_p} = \mathbb{F}_p \cup { \infty }$ (on which $L_2(p)$ acts via Moebius transformations)

$\pi_5 = (0,\infty)(1,4)(2,3) \quad \pi_7=(0,\infty)(1,3)(2,6)(4,5) \quad \pi_{11}=(0,\infty)(1,6)(3,7)(9,10)(5,8)(4,2)$

(in fact, Galois uses the involution $~(0,\infty)(1,2)(3,6)(4,8)(5,10)(9,7)$ for $p=11$), then $L_2(p)$ leaves invariant the set consisting of the $p$ involutions $\Pi = { \alpha^{-i} \pi_p \alpha^i~:~1 \leq i \leq p }$. After mentioning these involutions Galois merely writes :

Ainsi pour le cas de $p=5,7,11$, l’equation modulaire s’abaisse au degre p.
En toute rigueur, cette reduction n’est pas possible dans les cas plus eleves.

Alternatively, one can deduce these permutation representation representations from group isomorphisms. As $L_2(5) \simeq A_5$, the alternating group on 5 symbols, $L_2(5)$ clearly acts transitively on 5 symbols.

Similarly, for $p=7$ we have $L_2(7) \simeq L_3(2)$ and so the group acts as automorphisms on the projective plane over the field on two elements $\mathbb{P}^2_{\mathbb{F}_2}$ aka the Fano plane, as depicted on the left.

This finite projective plane has 7 points and 7 lines and $L_3(2)$ acts transitively on them.

For $p=11$ the geometrical object is a bit more involved. The set of non-squares in $\mathbb{F}_{11}$ is

${ 1,3,4,5,9 }$

and if we translate this set using the additive structure in $\mathbb{F}_{11}$ one obtains the following 11 five-element sets

${ 1,3,4,5,9 }, { 2,4,5,6,10 }, { 3,5,6,7,11 }, { 1,4,6,7,8 }, { 2,5,7,8,9 }, { 3,6,8,9,10 },$

${ 4,7,9,10,11 }, { 1,5,8,10,11 }, { 1,2,6,9,11 }, { 1,2,3,7,10 }, { 2,3,4,8,11 }$

and if we regard these sets as ‘lines’ we see that two distinct lines intersect in exactly 2 points and that any two distinct points lie on exactly two ‘lines’. That is, intersection sets up a bijection between the 55-element set of all pairs of distinct points and the 55-element set of all pairs of distinct ‘lines’. This is called the biplane geometry.

The subgroup of $S_{11}$ (acting on the eleven elements of $\mathbb{F}_{11}$) stabilizing this set of 11 5-element sets is precisely the group $L_2(11)$ giving the permutation representation on 11 objects.

An alternative statement of Galois’ result is that for $p > 11$ there is no subgroup of $L_2(p)$ complementary to the cyclic subgroup

$C_p = { \begin{bmatrix} 1 & x \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}~:~x \in \mathbb{F}_p }$

That is, there is no subgroup such that set-theoretically $L_2(p) = F \times C_p$ (note this is of courese not a group-product, all it says is that any element can be written as $g=f.c$ with $f \in F, c \in C_p$.

However, in the three exceptional cases we do have complementary subgroups. In fact, set-theoretically we have

$L_2(5) = A_4 \times C_5 \qquad L_2(7) = S_4 \times C_7 \qquad L_2(11) = A_5 \times C_{11}$

and it is a truly amazing fact that the three groups appearing are precisely the three Platonic groups!

Recall that here are 5 Platonic (or Scottish) solids coming in three sorts when it comes to rotation-automorphism groups : the tetrahedron (group $A_4$), the cube and octahedron (group $S_4$) and the dodecahedron and icosahedron (group $A_5$). The “4” in the cube are the four body diagonals and the “5” in the dodecahedron are the five inscribed cubes.

That is, our three ‘exceptional’ Galois-groups correspond to the three Platonic groups, which in turn correspond to the three exceptional Lie algebras $E_6,E_7,E_8$ via McKay correspondence (wrt. their 2-fold covers). Maybe I’ll detail this latter connection another time. It sure seems that surprises often come in triples…

Finally, it is well known that $L_2(5) \simeq A_5$ is the automorphism group of the icosahedron (or dodecahedron) and that $L_2(7)$ is the automorphism group of the Klein quartic.

So, one might ask : is there also a nice curve connected with the third group $L_2(11)$? Rumour has it that this is indeed the case and that the curve in question has genus 70… (to be continued).

Reference

Monstrous moonshine was born (sometime in 1978) the moment John McKay realized that the linear term in the j-function

$j(q) = \frac{1}{q} + 744 + 196884 q + 21493760 q^2 + 864229970 q^3 + \ldots$

is surprisingly close to the dimension of the smallest non-trivial irreducible representation of the monster group, which is 196883. Note that at that time, the Monster hasn’t been constructed yet, and, the only traces of its possible existence were kept as semi-secret information in a huge ledger (costing 80 pounds…) kept in the Atlas-office at Cambridge. Included were 8 huge pages describing the character table of the monster, the top left fragment, describing the lower dimensional irreducibles and their characters at small order elements, reproduced below

If you look at the dimensions of the smallest irreducible representations (the first column) : 196883, 21296876, 842609326, … you will see that the first, second and third of them are extremely close to the linear, quadratic and cubic coefficient of the j-function. In fact, more is true : one can obtain these actual j-coefficients as simple linear combination of the dimensions of the irrducibles :

$\begin{cases} 196884 &= 1 + 196883 \\ 21493760 &= 1 + 196883 + 21296876 \\ 864229970 &= 2 \times 1 + 2 \times 196883 + 21296876 + 842609326 \end{cases}$

Often, only the first relation is attributed to McKay, whereas the second and third were supposedly discovered by John Thompson after MKay showed him the first. Marcus du Sautoy tells a somewhat different sory in Finding Moonshine :

McKay has also gone on to find these extra equations, but is was Thompson who first published them. McKay admits that “I was a bit peeved really, I don’t think Thompson quite knew how much I knew.”

By the work of Richard Borcherds we now know the (partial according to some) explanation behind these numerical facts : there is a graded representation $V = \oplus_i V_i$ of the Monster-group (actually, it has a lot of extra structure such as being a vertex algebra) such that the dimension of the i-th factor $V_i$ equals the coefficient f $q^i$ in the j-function. The homogeneous components $V_i$ being finite dimensional representations of the monster, they decompose into the 194 irreducibles $X_j$. For the first three components we have the decompositions

$\begin{cases} V_1 &= X_1 \oplus X_2 \\ V_2 &= X_1 \oplus X_2 \oplus X_3 \\ V_3 &= X_1^{\oplus 2 } \oplus X_2^{\oplus 2} \oplus X_3 \oplus X_4 \end{cases}$

Calculating the dimensions on both sides give the above equations. However, being isomorphisms of monster-representations we are not restricted to just computing the dimensions. We might as well compute the character of any monster-element on both sides (observe that the dimension is just the character of the identity element). Characters are the traces of the matrices describing the action of a monster-element on the representation and these numbers fill the different columns of the character-table above.

Hence, the same integral combinations of the character values of any monster-element give another q-series and these are called the McKay-Thompson series. John Conway discovered them to be classical modular functions known as Hauptmoduln.

In most papers and online material on this only the first few coefficients of these series are documented, which may be just too little information to make new discoveries!

Fortunately, David Madore has compiled the first 3200 coefficients of all the 172 monster-series which are available in a huge 8Mb file. And, if you really need to have more coefficients, you can always use and modify his moonshine python program.

In order to reduce bandwidth, here a list containing the first 100 coefficients of the j-function

jfunct=[196884, 21493760, 864299970, 20245856256, 333202640600, 4252023300096, 44656994071935, 401490886656000, 3176440229784420, 22567393309593600, 146211911499519294, 874313719685775360, 4872010111798142520, 25497827389410525184, 126142916465781843075, 593121772421445058560, 2662842413150775245160, 11459912788444786513920, 47438786801234168813250, 189449976248893390028800, 731811377318137519245696, 2740630712513624654929920, 9971041659937182693533820, 35307453186561427099877376, 121883284330422510433351500, 410789960190307909157638144, 1353563541518646878675077500, 4365689224858876634610401280, 13798375834642999925542288376, 42780782244213262567058227200, 130233693825770295128044873221, 389608006170995911894300098560, 1146329398900810637779611090240, 3319627709139267167263679606784, 9468166135702260431646263438600, 26614365825753796268872151875584, 73773169969725069760801792854360, 201768789947228738648580043776000, 544763881751616630123165410477688, 1452689254439362169794355429376000, 3827767751739363485065598331130120, 9970416600217443268739409968824320, 25683334706395406994774011866319670, 65452367731499268312170283695144960, 165078821568186174782496283155142200, 412189630805216773489544457234333696, 1019253515891576791938652011091437835, 2496774105950716692603315123199672320, 6060574415413720999542378222812650932, 14581598453215019997540391326153984000, 34782974253512490652111111930326416268, 82282309236048637946346570669250805760, 193075525467822574167329529658775261720, 449497224123337477155078537760754122752, 1038483010587949794068925153685932435825, 2381407585309922413499951812839633584128, 5421449889876564723000378957979772088000, 12255365475040820661535516233050165760000, 27513411092859486460692553086168714659374, 61354289505303613617069338272284858777600, 135925092428365503809701809166616289474168, 299210983800076883665074958854523331870720, 654553043491650303064385476041569995365270, 1423197635972716062310802114654243653681152, 3076095473477196763039615540128479523917200, 6610091773782871627445909215080641586954240, 14123583372861184908287080245891873213544410, 30010041497911129625894110839466234009518080, 63419842535335416307760114920603619461313664, 133312625293210235328551896736236879235481600, 278775024890624328476718493296348769305198947, 579989466306862709777897124287027028934656000, 1200647685924154079965706763561795395948173320, 2473342981183106509136265613239678864092991488, 5070711930898997080570078906280842196519646750, 10346906640850426356226316839259822574115946496, 21015945810275143250691058902482079910086459520, 42493520024686459968969327541404178941239869440, 85539981818424975894053769448098796349808643878, 171444843023856632323050507966626554304633241600, 342155525555189176731983869123583942011978493364, 679986843667214052171954098018582522609944965120, 1345823847068981684952596216882155845897900827370, 2652886321384703560252232129659440092172381585408, 5208621342520253933693153488396012720448385783600, 10186635497140956830216811207229975611480797601792, 19845946857715387241695878080425504863628738882125, 38518943830283497365369391336243138882250145792000, 74484518929289017811719989832768142076931259410120, 143507172467283453885515222342782991192353207603200, 275501042616789153749080617893836796951133929783496, 527036058053281764188089220041629201191975505756160, 1004730453440939042843898965365412981690307145827840, 1908864098321310302488604739098618405938938477379584, 3614432179304462681879676809120464684975130836205250, 6821306832689380776546629825653465084003418476904448, 12831568450930566237049157191017104861217433634289960, 24060143444937604997591586090380473418086401696839680, 44972195698011806740150818275177754986409472910549646, 83798831110707476912751950384757452703801918339072000]


This information will come in handy when we will organize our Monstrous Easter Egg Race, starting tomorrow at 6 am (GMT)…

John Conway once wrote :

There are almost as many different constructions of $M_{24}$ as there have been mathematicians interested in that most remarkable of all finite groups.

In the inguanodon post Ive added yet another construction of the Mathieu groups $M_{12}$ and $M_{24}$ starting from (half of) the Farey sequences and the associated cuboid tree diagram obtained by demanding that all edges are odd. In this way the Mathieu groups turned out to be part of a (conjecturally) infinite sequence of simple groups, starting as follows :

$L_2(7),M_{12},A_{16},M_{24},A_{28},A_{40},A_{48},A_{60},A_{68},A_{88},A_{96},A_{120},A_{132},A_{148},A_{164},A_{196},\ldots$

It is quite easy to show that none of the other sporadics will appear in this sequence via their known permutation representations. Still, several of the sporadic simple groups are generated by an element of order two and one of order three, so they are determined by a finite dimensional permutation representation of the modular group $PSL_2(\mathbb{Z})$ and hence are hiding in a special polygonal region of the Dedekind’s tessellation

Let us try to figure out where the sporadic with the next simplest permutation representation is hiding : the second Janko group $J_2$, via its 100-dimensional permutation representation. The Atlas tells us that the order two and three generators act as

e:= (1,84)(2,20)(3,48)(4,56)(5,82)(6,67)(7,55)(8,41)(9,35)(10,40)(11,78)(12, 100)(13,49)(14,37)(15,94)(16,76)(17,19)(18,44)(21,34)(22,85)(23,92)(24, 57)(25,75)(26,28)(27,64)(29,90)(30,97)(31,38)(32,68)(33,69)(36,53)(39,61) (42,73)(43,91)(45,86)(46,81)(47,89)(50,93)(51,96)(52,72)(54,74)(58,99) (59,95)(60,63)(62,83)(65,70)(66,88)(71,87)(77,98)(79,80);

v:= (1,80,22)(2,9,11)(3,53,87)(4,23,78)(5,51,18)(6,37,24)(8,27,60)(10,62,47) (12,65,31)(13,64,19)(14,61,52)(15,98,25)(16,73,32)(17,39,33)(20,97,58) (21,96,67)(26,93,99)(28,57,35)(29,71,55)(30,69,45)(34,86,82)(38,59,94) (40,43,91)(42,68,44)(46,85,89)(48,76,90)(49,92,77)(50,66,88)(54,95,56) (63,74,72)(70,81,75)(79,100,83);


But as the kfarey.sage package written by Chris Kurth calculates the Farey symbol using the L-R generators, we use GAP to find those

L = e*v^-1  and  R=e*v^-2 so

L=(1,84,22,46,70,12,79)(2,58,93,88,50,26,35)(3,90,55,7,71,53,36)(4,95,38,65,75,98,92)(5,86,69,39,14,6,96)(8,41,60,72,61,17, 64)(9,57,37,52,74,56,78)(10,91,40,47,85,80,83)(11,23,49,19,33,30,20)(13,77,15,59,54,63,27)(16,48,87,29,76,32,42)(18,68, 73,44,51,21,82)(24,28,99,97,45,34,67)(25,81,89,62,100,31,94)

R=(1,84,80,100,65,81,85)(2,97,69,17,13,92,78)(3,76,73,68,16,90,71)(4,54,72,14,24,35,11)(5,34,96,18,42,32,44)(6,21,86,30,58, 26,57)(7,29,48,53,36,87,55)(8,41,27,19,39,52,63)(9,28,93,66,50,99,20)(10,43,40,62,79,22,89)(12,83,47,46,75,15,38)(23,77, 25,70,31,59,56)(33,45,82,51,67,37,61)(49,64,60,74,95,94,98)


Defining these permutations in sage and using kfarey, this gives us the Farey-symbol of the associated permutation representation

L=SymmetricGroup(Integer(100))("(1,84,22,46,70,12,79)(2,58,93,88,50,26,35)(3,90,55,7,71,53,36)(4,95,38,65,75,98,92)(5,86,69,39,14,6,96)(8,41,60,72,61,17, 64)(9,57,37,52,74,56,78)(10,91,40,47,85,80,83)(11,23,49,19,33,30,20)(13,77,15,59,54,63,27)(16,48,87,29,76,32,42)(18,68, 73,44,51,21,82)(24,28,99,97,45,34,67)(25,81,89,62,100,31,94)")

R=SymmetricGroup(Integer(100))("(1,84,80,100,65,81,85)(2,97,69,17,13,92,78)(3,76,73,68,16,90,71)(4,54,72,14,24,35,11)(5,34,96,18,42,32,44)(6,21,86,30,58, 26,57)(7,29,48,53,36,87,55)(8,41,27,19,39,52,63)(9,28,93,66,50,99,20)(10,43,40,62,79,22,89)(12,83,47,46,75,15,38)(23,77, 25,70,31,59,56)(33,45,82,51,67,37,61)(49,64,60,74,95,94,98)")

sage: FareySymbol("Perm",[L,R])

[[0, 1, 4, 3, 2, 5, 18, 13, 21, 71, 121, 413, 292, 463, 171, 50, 29, 8, 27, 46, 65, 19, 30, 11, 3, 10, 37, 64, 27, 17, 7, 4, 5], [1, 1, 3, 2, 1, 2, 7, 5, 8, 27, 46, 157, 111, 176, 65, 19, 11, 3, 10, 17, 24, 7, 11, 4, 1, 3, 11, 19, 8, 5, 2, 1, 1], [-3, 1, 4, 4, 2, 3, 6, -3, 7, 13, 14, 15, -3, -3, 15, 14, 11, 8, 8, 10, 12, 12, 10, 9, 5, 5, 9, 11, 13, 7, 6, 3, 2, 1]]


Here, the first string gives the numerators of the cusps, the second the denominators and the third gives the pairing information (where [tex[-2 $denotes an even edge and$-3 $an odd edge. Fortunately, kfarey also allows us to draw the special polygonal region determined by a Farey-symbol. So, here it is (without the pairing data) : the hiding place of$J_2 $… It would be nice to have (a) other Farey-symbols associated to the second Janko group, hopefully showing a pattern that one can extend into an infinite family as in the inguanodon series and (b) to determine Farey-symbols of more sporadic groups. Time to wrap up this series on the Bost-Connes algebra. Here’s what we have learned so far : the convolution product on double cosets$\begin{bmatrix} 1 & \mathbb{Z} \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} \backslash \begin{bmatrix} 1 & \mathbb{Q} \\ 0 & \mathbb{Q}_{> 0} \end{bmatrix} / \begin{bmatrix} 1 & \mathbb{Z} \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} $is a noncommutative algebra, the Bost-Connes Hecke algebra$\mathcal{H} $, which is a bi-chrystalline graded algebra (somewhat weaker than ‘strongly graded’) with part of degree one the group-algebra$\mathbb{Q}[\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z}] $. Further,$\mathcal{H} $has a natural one-parameter family of algebra automorphisms$\sigma_t $defined by$\sigma_t(X_n) = n^{it}X_n $and$\sigma_t(Y_{\lambda})=Y_{\lambda} $. For any algebra$A $together with a one-parameter family of automorphisms$\sigma_t $one is interested in KMS-states or Kubo-Martin-Schwinger states with parameter$\beta $,$KMS_{\beta} $(this parameter is often called the ‘invers temperature’ of the system) as these are suitable equilibria states. Recall that a state is a special linear functional$\phi $on$A $(in particular it must have norm one) and it belongs to$KMS_{\beta} $if the following commutation relation holds for all elements$a,b \in A \phi(a \sigma_{i\beta}(b)) = \phi(b a) $Let us work out the special case when$A $is the matrix-algebra$M_n(\mathbb{C}) $. To begin, all algebra-automorphisms are inner in this case, so any one-parameter family of automorphisms is of the form$\sigma_t(a) = e^{itH} a e^{-itH} $where$e^{itH} $is the matrix-exponential of the nxn matrix$H $. For any parameter$\beta $we claim that the linear functional$\phi(a) = \frac{1}{tr(e^{-\beta H})} tr(a e^{-\beta H}) $is a KMS-state.Indeed, we have for all matrices$a,b \in M_n(\mathbb{C}) $that$\phi(a \sigma_{i \beta}(b)) = \frac{1}{tr(e^{-\beta H})} tr(a e^{- \beta H} b e^{\beta H} e^{- \beta H}) = \frac{1}{tr(e^{-\beta H})} tr(a e^{-\beta H} b) = \frac{1}{tr(e^{-\beta H})} tr(ba e^{-\beta H}) = \phi(ba) $(the next to last equality follows from cyclic-invariance of the trace map). These states are usually called Gibbs states and the normalization factor$\frac{1}{tr(e^{-\beta H})} $(needed because a state must have norm one) is called the partition function of the system. Gibbs states have arisen from the study of ideal gases and the place to read up on all of this are the first two chapters of the second volume of “Operator algebras and quantum statistical mechanics” by Ola Bratelli and Derek Robinson. This gives us a method to construct KMS-states for an arbitrary algebra$A $with one-parameter automorphisms$\sigma_t $: take a simple n-dimensional representation$\pi~:~A \mapsto M_n(\mathbb{C}) $, find the matrix$H $determining the image of the automorphisms$\pi(\sigma_t) $and take the Gibbs states as defined before. Let us return now to the Bost-Connes algebra$\mathcal{H} $. We don’t know any finite dimensional simple representations of$\mathcal{H} $but, sure enough, have plenty of graded simple representations. By the usual strongly-graded-yoga they should correspond to simple finite dimensional representations of the part of degree one$\mathbb{Q}[\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z}] $(all of them being one-dimensional and corresponding to characters of$\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z} $). Hence, for any$u \in \mathcal{G} = \prod_p \hat{\mathbb{Z}}_p^{\ast} $(details) we have a graded simple$\mathcal{H} $-representation$S_u = \oplus_{n \in \mathbb{N}_+} \mathbb{C} e_n $with action defined by$\begin{cases} \pi_u(X_n)(e_m) = e_{nm} \\ \pi_u(Y_{\lambda})(e_m) = e^{2\pi i n u . \lambda} e_m \end{cases} $Here,$u.\lambda $is computed using the ‘chinese-remainder-identification’$\mathcal{A}/\mathcal{R} = \mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z} $(details). Even when the representations$S_u $are not finite dimensional, we can mimic the above strategy : we should find a linear operator$H $determining the images of the automorphisms$\pi_u(\sigma_t) $. We claim that the operator is defined by$H(e_n) = log(n) e_n $for all$n \in \mathbb{N}_+ $. That is, we claim that for elements$a \in \mathcal{H} $we have$\pi_u(\sigma_t(a)) = e^{itH} \pi_u(a) e^{-itH} $So let us compute the action of both sides on$e_m $when$a=X_n $. The left hand side gives$\pi_u(n^{it}X_n)(e_m) = n^{it} e_{mn} $whereas the right-hand side becomes$e^{itH}\pi_u(X_n) e^{-itH}(e_m) = e^{itH} \pi_u(X_n) m^{-it} e_m = e^{itH} m^{-it} e_{mn} = (mn)^{it} m^{-it} e_{mn} = n^{it} e_{mn} $proving the claim. For any parameter$\beta $this then gives us a KMS-state for the Bost-Connes algebra by$\phi_u(a) = \frac{1}{Tr(e^{-\beta H})} Tr(\pi_u(a) e^{-\beta H}) $Finally, let us calculate the normalization factor (or partition function)$\frac{1}{Tr(e^{-\beta H})} $. Because$e^{-\beta H}(e_n) = n^{-\beta} e_n $we have for that the trace$Tr(e^{-\beta H}) = \sum_{n \in \mathbb{N}_+} \frac{1}{n^{\beta}} = \zeta(\beta) $is equal to the Riemann zeta-value$\zeta(\beta) $(at least when$\beta > 1 $). Summarizing, we started with the definition of the Bost-Connes algebra$\mathcal{H} $, found a canonical one-parameter subgroup of algebra automorphisms$\sigma_t $and computed that the natural equilibria states with respect to this ‘time evolution’ have as their partition function the Riemann zeta-function. Voila! The adelic interpretation of the Bost-Connes Hecke algebra$\mathcal{H} $is based on three facts we’ve learned so far : 1. The diagonal embedding of the rational numbers$\delta~:~\mathbb{Q} \rightarrow \prod_p \mathbb{Q}_p $has its image in the adele ring$\mathcal{A} $. ( details ) 2. There is an exact sequence of semigroups$1 \rightarrow \mathcal{G} \rightarrow \mathcal{I} \cap \mathcal{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{N}^+_{\times} \rightarrow 1 $where$\mathcal{I} $is the idele group, that is the units of$\mathcal{A} $, where$\mathcal{R} = \prod_p \mathbb{Z}_p $and where$\mathcal{G} $is the group (!)$\prod_p \mathbb{Z}_p^* $. ( details ) 3. There is an isomorphism of additive groups$\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z} \simeq \mathcal{A}/\mathcal{R} $. ( details ) Because$\mathcal{R} $is a ring we have that$a\mathcal{R} \subset \mathcal{R} $for any$a=(a_p)_p \in \mathcal{I} \cap \mathcal{R} $. Therefore, we have an induced ‘multiplication by$a $’ morphism on the additive group$\mathcal{A}/\mathcal{R} \rightarrow^{a.} \mathcal{A}/\mathcal{R} $which is an epimorphism for all$a \in \mathcal{I} \cap \mathcal{R} $. In fact, it is easy to see that the equation$a.x = y $for$y \in \mathcal{A}/\mathcal{R} $has precisely$n_a = \prod_p p^{d(a)} $solutions. In particular, for any$a \in \mathcal{G} = \prod_p \mathbb{Z}_p^* $, multiplication by$a $is an isomorphism on$\mathcal{A}/\mathcal{R} = \mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z} $. But then, we can form the crystalline semigroup graded skew-group algebra$\mathbb{Q}(\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z}) \bowtie (\mathcal{I} \cap \mathcal{R}) $. It is the graded vectorspace$\oplus_{a \in \mathcal{I} \cap \mathcal{R}} X_a \mathbb{Q}[\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z}] $with commutation relation$Y_{\lambda}X_a = X_a Y_{a \lambda} $for the base-vectors$Y_{\lambda} $with$\lambda \in \mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z} $. Recall from last time we need to use approximation (or the Chinese remainder theorem) to determine the class of$a \lambda $in$\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z} $. We can also extend it to a bi-crystalline graded algebra because multiplication by$a \in \mathcal{I} \cap \mathcal{R} $has a left-inverse which determines the commutation relations$Y_{\lambda} X_a^* = X_a^* (\frac{1}{n_a})(\sum_{a.\mu = \lambda} Y_{\mu}) $. Let us call this bi-crystalline graded algebra$\mathcal{H}_{big} $, then we have the following facts 1. For every$a \in \mathcal{G} $, the element$X_a $is a unit in$\mathcal{H}_{big} $and$X_a^{-1}=X_a^* $. Conjugation by$X_a $induces on the subalgebra$\mathbb{Q}[\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z}] $the map$Y_{\lambda} \rightarrow Y_{a \lambda} $. 2. Using the diagonal embedding$\delta $restricted to$\mathbb{N}^+_{\times} $we get an embedding of algebras$\mathcal{H} \subset \mathcal{H}_{big} $and conjugation by$X_a $for any$a \in \mathcal{G} $sends$\mathcal{H} $to itself. However, as the$X_a \notin \mathcal{H} $, the induced automorphisms are now outer! Summarizing : the Bost-Connes Hecke algebra$\mathcal{H} $encodes a lot of number-theoretic information : • the additive structure is encoded in the sub-algebra which is the group-algebra$\mathbb{Q}[\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z}] $• the multiplicative structure in encoded in the epimorphisms given by multiplication with a positive natural number (the commutation relation with the$X_m $• the automorphism group of$\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z} $extends to outer automorphisms of$\mathcal{H} $That is, the Bost-Connes algebra can be seen as a giant mashup of number-theory of$\mathbb{Q} $. So, if one can prove something specific about this algebra, it is bound to have interesting number-theoretic consequences. But how will we study$\mathcal{H} $? Well, the bi-crystalline structure of it tells us that$\mathcal{H} $is a ‘good’-graded algebra with part of degree one the group-algebra$\mathbb{Q}[\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z}] $. This group-algebra is a formally smooth algebra and we study such algebras by studying their finite dimensional representations. Hence, we should study ‘good’-graded formally smooth algebras (such as$\mathcal{H} $) by looking at their graded representations. This will then lead us to Connes’ “fabulous states”… As before,$\Gamma $is the subgroup of the rational linear group$GL_2(\mathbb{Q}) $consisting of the matrices$\begin{bmatrix} 1 & b \\ 0 & a \end{bmatrix} $with$a \in \mathbb{Q}_+ $and$\Gamma_0 $the subgroup of all matrices$\begin{bmatrix} 1 & n \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} $with$n \in \mathbb{N} $. Last time, we have seen that the double coset space$\Gamma_0 \backslash \Gamma / \Gamma_0 $can be identified with the set of all rational points in the fractal comb consisting of all couples$~(a,b) $with$a=\frac{m}{n} \in \mathbb{Q}_+ $and$b \in [0,\frac{1}{n}) \cap \mathbb{Q} $The blue spikes are at the positive natural numbers$a={ 1,2,3,\ldots } $. Over$a=1 $they correspond to the matrices$\begin{bmatrix} 1 & \gamma \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} $with$\gamma \in [0,1) \cap \mathbb{Q} $and as matrix-multiplication of such matrices corresponds to addition of the$\gamma $we see that these cosets can be identified with the additive group$\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z} $(which will reappear at a later stage as the multiplicative group of all roots of unity). The Bost-Connes Hecke algebra$\mathcal{H} = \mathcal{H}(\Gamma,\Gamma_0) $is the convolution algebra of all comlex valued functions with finite support on the double coset space$\Gamma_0 \backslash \Gamma / \Gamma_0 $. That is, as a vector space the algebra has as basis the functions$e_X $with$X \in \Gamma_0 \backslash \Gamma / \Gamma_0 $(that is,$X $is a point of the fractal comb) and such that$e_X(X)=1 $and$e_X(Y)=0 $for all other double cosets$Y \not= X $. The algebra product on$\mathcal{H} $is the convolution-product meaning that if$f,f’ $are complex functions with finite support on the Bost-Connes space, then they can also be interpreted as$\Gamma_0 $-bi-invariant functions on the group$\Gamma $(for this just means that the function is constant on double cosets) and then$f \ast f’ $is the function defined for all$\gamma \in \Gamma $by$f \ast f'(\gamma) = \sum_{\mu \in \Gamma/ \Gamma_0} f(\mu) f'(\mu^{-1} \gamma) $Last time we have seen that the coset-space$\Gamma / \Gamma_0 $can be represented by all rational points$~(a,b) $with$b<1 $. At first sight, the sum above seems to be infinite, but, f and f’ are non-zero only at finitely many double cosets and we have see last time that$\Gamma_0 $acts on one-sided cosets with finite orbits. Therefore,$f \ast f $is a well-defined$\Gamma_0 $-bi-invariant function with finite support on the fractal comb$\Gamma_0 \backslash \Gamma / \Gamma_0 $. Further, observe that the unit element of$\mathcal{H} $is the function corresponding to the identity matrix in$\Gamma $. Looking at fractal-comb picture it is obvious that the Bost-Connes Hecke algebra$\mathcal{H} $is a huge object. Today, we will prove the surprising result that it can be generated by the functions corresponding to the tiny portion of the comb, shown below. That is, we will show that$\mathcal{H} $is generated by the functions$e(\gamma) $corresponding to the double-coset$X_{\gamma} = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & \gamma \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} $(the rational points of the blue line-segment over 1, or equivalently, the elements of the group$\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z} $), together with the functions$\phi_n $corresponding to the double-coset$X_n = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & n \end{bmatrix} $for all$ n \in \mathbb{N}_+ $(the blue dots to the right in the picture) and the functions$\phi_n^* $corresponding to the double cosets$X_{1/n} = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & \frac{1}{n} \end{bmatrix} $(the red dots to the left). Take a point in the fractal comb$X = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & \gamma \\ 0 & \frac{m}{n} \end{bmatrix} $with$~(m,n)=1 $and$\gamma \in [0,\frac{1}{n}) \cap \mathbb{Q} \subset [0,1) \cap \mathbb{Q} $. Note that as$\gamma < \frac{1}{n} $we have that$n \gamma < 1 $and hence$e(n \gamma) $is one of the (supposedly) generating functions described above. Because$X = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & \gamma \\ 0 & \frac{m}{n} \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & m \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} 1 & n \gamma \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & \frac{1}{n} \end{bmatrix} = X_m X_{n \gamma} X_{1/n} $we are aiming for a relation in the Hecke algebra$\phi_m \ast e(n \gamma) \ast \phi^*_n = e_X $. This is ‘almost’ true, except from a coefficient. Let us prove first the equality of functions$e_X \ast \phi_n = n \phi_m \ast e(n \gamma) $. To do this we have to show that they have the same value for all points$Y \in \Gamma_0 \backslash \Gamma / \Gamma_0 $in the fractal comb. Let us first study the function on the right hand side.$\phi_m \ast e(n \gamma) = \sum_{g \in \Gamma/\Gamma_0} \phi_m(g) e(n \gamma)(g^{-1}Y) $. Because$X_m \Gamma_0 $is already a double coset (over$m $we have a comb-spike of length one, so all rational points on it determine at the same time a one-sided and a double coset. Therefore,$\phi_m(g) $is zero unless$g = X_m $and then the value is one. Next, let us consider the function on the left-hand side.$e_X \ast \phi_n(Y) = \sum_{g \in \Gamma / \Gamma_0} e_X(g) \phi_m( g^{-1} Y) $. We have to be a bit careful here as the double cosets over$a=\frac{m}{n} $are different from the left cosets. Recall from last time that the left-cosets over a are given by all rational points of the form$~(a,b) $with$ b < 1 $whereas the double-cosets over a are represented by the rational points of the form$~(a,b) $with$b < \frac{1}{n} $and hence the$\Gamma_0 $-orbits over a all consist of precisely n elements g. That is,$e_X(g) $is zero for all$ g \in \Gamma/\Gamma_0 $except when g is one of the following matrices$ g \in { \begin{bmatrix} 1 & \gamma \\ 0 & \frac{m}{n} \end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix} 1 & \gamma+\frac{1}{n} \\ 0 & \frac{m}{n} \end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix} 1 & \gamma + \frac{2}{n} \\ 0 & \frac{m}{n} \end{bmatrix}, \ldots, \begin{bmatrix} 1 & \gamma + \frac{n-1}{n} \\ 0 & \frac{m}{n} \end{bmatrix} } $Further,$\phi_n(g^{-1}Y) $is zero unless$g^{-1}Y \in \Gamma_0 \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & n \end{bmatrix} \Gamma_0 $, or equivalently, that$Y \in \Gamma_0 g \Gamma_0 \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & n \end{bmatrix} \Gamma_0 = \Gamma_0 g \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & n \end{bmatrix} \Gamma_0 $and for each of the choices for g we have that$ \begin{bmatrix} 1 & \gamma + \frac{k}{n} \\ 0 & \frac{m}{n} \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & n \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & n \gamma + k \\ 0 & m \end{bmatrix} \sim \begin{bmatrix} 1 & n\gamma \\ 0 & m \end{bmatrix} $Therefore, the function$e_X \ast \phi_n $is zero at every point of the fractal comb unless at$\begin{bmatrix} 1 & n \gamma \\ 0 & m \end{bmatrix} $where it is equal to$n $. This proves the claimed identity of functions and as one verifies easily that$\phi_n^* \ast \phi_n = 1 $, it follows that all base vectors$e_X $of$\mathcal{H} $can be expressed in the claimed generators$ e_X = n \phi_m \ast e(n \gamma) \ast \phi_n^* $Bost and Connes use slightly different generators, namely with$\mu_n = \frac{1}{\sqrt{n}} \phi_n $and$\mu_n^* = \sqrt{n} \phi_n^* $in order to have all relations among the generators being defined over$\mathbb{Q} $(as we will see another time). This will be important later on to have an action of the cyclotomic Galois group$Gal(\mathbb{Q}^{cycl}/\mathbb{Q}) $on certain representations of$\mathcal{H} $. It’s been a while, so let’s include a recap : a (transitive) permutation representation of the modular group$\Gamma = PSL_2(\mathbb{Z}) $is determined by the conjugacy class of a cofinite subgroup$\Lambda \subset \Gamma $, or equivalently, to a dessin d’enfant. We have introduced a quiver (aka an oriented graph) which comes from a triangulation of the compactification of$\mathbb{H} / \Lambda $where$\mathbb{H} $is the hyperbolic upper half-plane. This quiver is independent of the chosen embedding of the dessin in the Dedeking tessellation. (For more on these terms and constructions, please consult the series Modular subgroups and Dessins d’enfants). Why are quivers useful? To start, any quiver$Q $defines a noncommutative algebra, the path algebra$\mathbb{C} Q $, which has as a$\mathbb{C} $-basis all oriented paths in the quiver and multiplication is induced by concatenation of paths (when possible, or zero otherwise). Usually, it is quite hard to make actual computations in noncommutative algebras, but in the case of path algebras you can just see what happens. Moreover, we can also see the finite dimensional representations of this algebra$\mathbb{C} Q $. Up to isomorphism they are all of the following form : at each vertex$v_i $of the quiver one places a finite dimensional vectorspace$\mathbb{C}^{d_i} $and any arrow in the quiver $$\xymatrix{\vtx{v_i} \ar[r]^a & \vtx{v_j}}$$ determines a linear map between these vertex spaces, that is, to$a $corresponds a matrix in$M_{d_j \times d_i}(\mathbb{C}) $. These matrices determine how the paths of length one act on the representation, longer paths act via multiplcation of matrices along the oriented path. A necklace in the quiver is a closed oriented path in the quiver up to cyclic permutation of the arrows making up the cycle. That is, we are free to choose the start (and end) point of the cycle. For example, in the one-cycle quiver $$\xymatrix{\vtx{} \ar[rr]^a & & \vtx{} \ar[ld]^b \\ & \vtx{} \ar[lu]^c &}$$ the basic necklace can be represented as$abc $or$bca $or$cab $. How does a necklace act on a representation? Well, the matrix-multiplication of the matrices corresponding to the arrows gives a square matrix in each of the vertices in the cycle. Though the dimensions of this matrix may vary from vertex to vertex, what does not change (and hence is a property of the necklace rather than of the particular choice of cycle) is the trace of this matrix. That is, necklaces give complex-valued functions on representations of$\mathbb{C} Q $and by a result of Artin and Procesi there are enough of them to distinguish isoclasses of (semi)simple representations! That is, linear combinations a necklaces (aka super-potentials) can be viewed, after taking traces, as complex-valued functions on all representations (similar to character-functions). In physics, one views these functions as potentials and it then interested in the points (representations) where this function is extremal (minimal) : the vacua. Clearly, this does not make much sense in the complex-case but is relevant when we look at the real-case (where we look at skew-Hermitian matrices rather than all matrices). A motivating example (the Yang-Mills potential) is given in Example 2.3.2 of Victor Ginzburg’s paper Calabi-Yau algebras. Let$\Phi $be a super-potential (again, a linear combination of necklaces) then our commutative intuition tells us that extrema correspond to zeroes of all partial differentials$\frac{\partial \Phi}{\partial a} $where$a $runs over all coordinates (in our case, the arrows of the quiver). One can make sense of differentials of necklaces (and super-potentials) as follows : the partial differential with respect to an arrow$a $occurring in a term of$\Phi $is defined to be the path in the quiver one obtains by removing all 1-occurrences of$a $in the necklaces (defining$\Phi $) and rearranging terms to get a maximal broken necklace (using the cyclic property of necklaces). An example, for the cyclic quiver above let us take as super-potential$abcabc $(2 cyclic turns), then for example$\frac{\partial \Phi}{\partial b} = cabca+cabca = 2 cabca $(the first term corresponds to the first occurrence of$b $, the second to the second). Okay, but then the vacua-representations will be the representations of the quotient-algebra (which I like to call the vacualgebra)$\mathcal{U}(Q,\Phi) = \frac{\mathbb{C} Q}{(\partial \Phi/\partial a, \forall a)} $which in ‘physical relevant settings’ (whatever that means…) turn out to be Calabi-Yau algebras. But, let us return to the case of subgroups of the modular group and their quivers. Do we have a natural super-potential in this case? Well yes, the quiver encoded a triangulation of the compactification of$\mathbb{H}/\Lambda $and if we choose an orientation it turns out that all ‘black’ triangles (with respect to the Dedekind tessellation) have their arrow-sides defining a necklace, whereas for the ‘white’ triangles the reverse orientation makes the arrow-sides into a necklace. Hence, it makes sense to look at the cubic superpotential$\Phi $being the sum over all triangle-sides-necklaces with a +1-coefficient for the black triangles and a -1-coefficient for the white ones. Let’s consider an index three example from a previous post $$\xymatrix{& & \rho \ar[lld]_d \ar[ld]^f \ar[rd]^e & \\ i \ar[rrd]_a & i+1 \ar[rd]^b & & \omega \ar[ld]^c \\ & & 0 \ar[uu]^h \ar@/^/[uu]^g \ar@/_/[uu]_i &}$$ In this case the super-potential coming from the triangulation is$\Phi = -aid+agd-cge+che-bhf+bif $and therefore we have a noncommutative algebra$\mathcal{U}(Q,\Phi) $associated to this index 3 subgroup. Contrary to what I believed at the start of this series, the algebras one obtains in this way from dessins d’enfants are far from being Calabi-Yau (in whatever definition). For example, using a GAP-program written by Raf Bocklandt Ive checked that the growth rate of the above algebra is similar to that of$\mathbb{C}[x] $, so in this case$\mathcal{U}(Q,\Phi) $can be viewed as a noncommutative curve (with singularities). However, this is not the case for all such algebras. For example, the vacualgebra associated to the second index three subgroup (whose fundamental domain and quiver were depicted at the end of this post) has growth rate similar to that of$\mathbb{C} \langle x,y \rangle $… I have an outlandish conjecture about the growth-behavior of all algebras$\mathcal{U}(Q,\Phi) $coming from dessins d’enfants : the algebra sees what the monodromy representation of the dessin sees of the modular group (or of the third braid group). I can make this more precise, but perhaps it is wiser to calculate one or two further examples… We have associated to a subgroup of the modular group$PSL_2(\mathbb{Z}) $a quiver (that is, an oriented graph). For example, one verifies that the fundamental domain of the subgroup$\Gamma_0(2) $(an index 3 subgroup) is depicted on the right by the region between the thick lines with the identification of edges as indicated. The associated quiver is then $\xymatrix{i \ar[rr]^a \ar[dd]^b & & 1 \ar@/^/[ld]^h \ar@/_/[ld]_i \\ & \rho \ar@/^/[lu]^d \ar@/_/[lu]_e \ar[rd]^f & \\ 0 \ar[ru]^g & & i+1 \ar[uu]^c}$ The corresponding “dessin d’enfant” are the green edges in the picture. But, the red dot on the left boundary is identied with the red dot on the lower circular boundary, so the dessin of the modular subgroup$\Gamma_0(2) $is $\xymatrix{| \ar@{-}[r] & \bullet \ar@{-}@/^8ex/[r] \ar@{-}@/_8ex/[r] & -}$ Here, the three red dots (all of them even points in the Dedekind tessellation) give (after the identification) the two points indicated by a$\mid $whereas the blue dot (an odd point in the tessellation) is depicted by a$\bullet $. There is another ‘quiver-like’ picture associated to this dessin, a quilt of the modular subgroup$\Gamma_0(2) $as studied by John Conway and Tim Hsu. On the left, a quilt-diagram copied from Hsu’s book Quilts : central extensions, braid actions, and finite groups, exercise 3.3.9. This ‘quiver’ has also 5 vertices and 7 arrows as our quiver above, so is there a connection? A quilt is a gadget to study transitive permutation representations of the braid group$B_3 $(rather than its quotient, the modular group$PSL_2(\mathbb{Z}) = B_3/\langle Z \rangle $where$\langle Z \rangle $is the cyclic center of$B_3 $. The$Z $-stabilizer subgroup of all elements in a transitive permutation representation of$B_3 $is the same and hence of the form$\langle Z^M \rangle $where M is called the modulus of the representation. The arrow-data of a quilt, that is the direction of certain edges and their labeling with numbers from$\mathbb{Z}/M \mathbb{Z} $(which have to satisfy some requirements, the flow rules, but more about that another time) encode the Z-action on the permutation representation. The dimension of the representation is$M \times k $where$k $is the number of half-edges in the dessin. In the above example, the modulus is 5 and the dessin has 3 (half)edges, so it depicts a 15-dimensional permutation representation of$B_3 $. If we forget the Z-action (that is, the arrow information), we get a permutation representation of the modular group (that is a dessin). So, if we delete the labels and directions on the edges we get what Hsu calls a modular quilt, that is, a picture consisting of thick edges (the dessin) together with dotted edges which are called the seams of the modular quilt. The modular quilt is merely another way to depict a fundamental domain of the corresponding subgroup of the modular group. For the above example, we have the indicated correspondences between the fundamental domain of$\Gamma_0(2) $in the upper half-plane (on the left) and as a modular quilt (on the right) That is, we can also get our quiver (or its opposite quiver) from the modular quilt by fixing the orientation of one 2-cell. For example, if we fix the orientation of the 2-cell$\vec{fch} $we get our quiver back from the modular quilt $\xymatrix{i \ar[rr]^a \ar[dd]^b & & 1 \ar@/^/[ld]^h \ar@/_/[ld]_i \\ & \rho \ar@/^/[lu]^d \ar@/_/[lu]_e \ar[rd]^f & \\ 0 \ar[ru]^g & & i+1 \ar[uu]^c}$ This shows that the quiver (or its opposite) associated to a (conjugacy class of a) subgroup of$PSL_2(\mathbb{Z}) $does not depend on the choice of embedding of the dessin (or associated cuboid tree diagram) in the upper half-plane. For, one can get the modular quilt from the dessin by adding one extra vertex for every connected component of the complement of the dessin (in the example, the two vertices corresponding to 0 and 1) and drawing a triangulation from them (the dotted lines or ‘seams’). In a couple of days I’ll be blogging for 4 years… and I’m in the process of resurrecting about 300 posts from a database-dump made in june. For example here’s my first post ever which is rather naive. This conversion program may last for a couple of weeks and I apologize for all unwanted pingbacks it will produce. I’ll try to convert chunks of related posts in one go, so that I can at least give them correct self-references. Today’s work consisted in rewriting the posts of my virtual course, in march of this year, on dessins d’enfants and its connection to noncommutative geometry (a precursor of what Ive been blogging about recently). These posts were available through the PDF-archive but are from now on open to the internal search-function. Here are the internal links and a short description of their contents Besides, I’ve added a few scattered old posts, many more to follow… Last time (possibly with help from the survival guide) we have seen that the universal map from the modular group$\Gamma = PSL_2(\mathbb{Z}) $to its profinite completion$\hat{\Gamma} = \underset{\leftarrow}{lim}~PSL_2(\mathbb{Z})/N $(limit over all finite index normal subgroups$N $) gives an embedding of the sets of (continuous) simple finite dimensional representations$\mathbf{simp}_c~\hat{\Gamma} \subset \mathbf{simp}~\Gamma $and based on the example$\mu_{\infty} = \mathbf{simp}_c~\hat{\mathbb{Z}} \subset \mathbf{simp}~\mathbb{Z} = \mathbb{C}^{\ast} $we would like the above embedding to be dense in some kind of noncommutative analogon of the Zariski topology on$\mathbf{simp}~\Gamma $. We use the Zariski topology on$\mathbf{simp}~\mathbb{C} \Gamma $as in these two M-geometry posts (( already, I regret terminology, I should have just called it noncommutative geometry )). So, what’s this idea in this special case? Let$\mathfrak{g} $be the vectorspace with basis the conjugacy classes of elements of$\Gamma $(that is, the space of class functions). As explained here it is a consequence of the Artin-Procesi theorem that the linear functions$\mathfrak{g}^{\ast} $separate finite dimensional (semi)simple representations of$\Gamma $. That is we have an embedding$\mathbf{simp}~\Gamma \subset \mathfrak{g}^{\ast} $and we can define closed subsets of$\mathbf{simp}~\Gamma $as subsets of simple representations on which a set of class-functions vanish. With this definition of Zariski topology it is immediately clear that the image of$\mathbf{simp}_c~\hat{\Gamma} $is dense. For, suppose it would be contained in a proper closed subset then there would be a class-function vanishing on all simples of$\hat{\Gamma} $so, in particular, there should be a bound on the number of simples of finite quotients$\Gamma/N $which clearly is not the case (just look at the quotients$PSL_2(\mathbb{F}_p) $). But then, the same holds if we replace ‘simples of$\hat{\Gamma} $’ by ‘simple components of permutation representations of$\Gamma $’. This is the importance of Farey symbols to the representation problem of the modular group. They give us a manageable subset of simples which is nevertheless dense in the whole space. To utilize this a natural idea might be to ask what such a permutation representation can see of the modular group, or in geometric terms, what the tangent space is to$\mathbf{simp}~\Gamma $in a permutation representation (( more precisely, in the ‘cluster’ of points making up the simple components of the representation representation )). We will call this the modular content of the permutation representation and to understand it we will have to compute the tangent quiver$\vec{t}~\mathbb{C} \Gamma \$.