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Tag: Mathieu

sexing up curves

Here the
story of an idea to construct new examples of non-commutative compact
manifolds, the computational difficulties one runs into and, when they
are solved, the white noise one gets. But, perhaps, someone else can
spot a gem among all gibberish…
[Qurves]( (aka quasi-free algebras, aka formally smooth
algebras) are the \’affine\’ pieces of non-commutative manifolds. Basic
examples of qurves are : semi-simple algebras (e.g. group algebras of
finite groups), [path algebras of
quivers]( and
coordinate rings of affine smooth curves. So, let us start with an
affine smooth curve $X$ and spice it up to get a very non-commutative
qurve. First, we bring in finite groups. Let $G$ be a finite group
acting on $X$, then we can form the skew-group algebra $A = \mathbfk[X]
\bigstar G$. These are examples of prime Noetherian qurves (aka
hereditary orders). A more pompous way to phrase this is that these are
precisely the [one-dimensional smooth Deligne-Mumford
As the 21-st century will turn out to be the time we discovered the
importance of non-Noetherian algebras, let us make a jump into the
wilderness and consider the amalgamated free algebra product $A =
(\mathbf k[X] \bigstar G) \ast_{\mathbf k G} \mathbfk H$ where $G
\subset H$ is an interesting extension of finite groups. Then, $A$ is
again a qurve on which $H$ acts in a way compatible with the $G$-action
on $X$ and $A$ is hugely non-commutative… A very basic example :
let $\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$ act on the affine line $\mathbfk[x]$ by
sending $x \mapsto -x$ and consider a finite [simple
group]( $M$. As every
simple group has an involution, we have an embedding
$\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z} \subset M$ and can construct the qurve
$A=(\mathbfk[x] \bigstar \mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}) \ast_{\mathbfk
\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}} \mathbfk M$ on which the simple group $M$ acts
compatible with the involution on the affine line. To study the
corresponding non-commutative manifold, that is the Abelian category
$\mathbf{rep}~A$ of all finite dimensional representations of $A$ we have
to compute the [one quiver to rule them
all]( for
$A$. Because $A$ is a qurve, all its representation varieties
$\mathbf{rep}_n~A$ are smooth affine varieties, but they may have several
connected components. The direct sum of representations turns the set of
all these components into an Abelian semigroup and the vertices of the
\’one quiver\’ correspond to the generators of this semigroup whereas
the number of arrows between two such generators is given by the
dimension of $Ext^1_A(S_i,S_j)$ where $S_i,S_j$ are simple
$A$-representations lying in the respective components. All this
may seem hard to compute but it can be reduced to the study of another
quiver, the Zariski quiver associated to $A$ which is a bipartite quiver
with on the left the \’one quiver\’ for $\mathbfk[x] \bigstar
\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$ which is just $\xymatrix{\vtx{}
\ar@/^/[rr] & & \vtx{} \ar@/^/[ll]} $ (where the two vertices
correspond to the two simples of $\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$) and on the
right the \’one quiver\’ for $\mathbf k M$ (which just consists of as
many verticers as there are simple representations for $M$) and where
the number of arrows from a left- to a right-vertex is the number of
$\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$-morphisms between the respective simples. To
make matters even more concrete, let us consider the easiest example
when $M = A_5$ the alternating group on $5$ letters. The corresponding
Zariski quiver then turns out to be $\xymatrix{& & \vtx{1} \\\
\vtx{}\ar[urr] \ar@{=>}[rr] \ar@3[drr] \ar[ddrr] \ar[dddrr] \ar@/^/[dd]
& & \vtx{4} \\\ & & \vtx{5} \\\ \vtx{} \ar@{=>}[uurr] \ar@{=>}[urr]
\ar@{=>}[rr] \ar@{=>}[drr] \ar@/^/[uu] & & \vtx{3} \\\ & &
\vtx{3}} $ The Euler-form of this quiver can then be used to
calculate the dimensions of the EXt-spaces giving the number of arrows
in the \’one quiver\’ for $A$. To find the vertices, that is, the
generators of the component semigroup we have to find the minimal
integral solutions to the pair of equations saying that the number of
simple $\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$ components based on the left-vertices is
equal to that one the right-vertices. In this case it is easy to see
that there are as many generators as simple $M$ representations. For
$A_5$ they correspond to the dimension vectors (for the Zariski quiver
having the first two components on the left) $\begin{cases}
(1,2,0,0,0,0,1) \\ (1,2,0,0,0,1,0) \\ (3,2,0,0,1,0,0) \\
(2,2,0,1,0,0,0) \\ (1,0,1,0,0,0,0) \end{cases}$ We now have all
info to determine the \’one quiver\’ for $A$ and one would expect a nice
result. Instead one obtains a complete graph on all vertices with plenty
of arrows. More precisely one obtains as the one quiver for $A_5$
$\xymatrix{& & \vtx{} \ar@{=}[dll] \ar@{=}[dddl] \ar@{=}[dddr]
\ar@{=}[drr] & & \\\ \vtx{} \ar@(ul,dl)|{4} \ar@{=}[rrrr]|{6}
\ar@{=}[ddrrr]|{8} \ar@{=}[ddr]|{4} & & & & \vtx{} \ar@(ur,dr)|{8}
\ar@{=}[ddlll]|{6} \ar@{=}[ddl]|{10} \\\ & & & & & \\\ & \vtx{}
\ar@(dr,dl)|{4} \ar@{=}[rr]|{8} & & \vtx{} \ar@(dr,dl)|{11} & } $
with the number of arrows (in each direction) indicated. Not very
illuminating, I find. Still, as the one quiver is symmetric it follows
that all quotient varieties $\mathbf{iss}_n~A$ have a local Poisson
structure. Clearly, the above method can be generalized easily and all
examples I did compute so far have this \’nearly complete graph\’
feature. One might hope that if one would start with very special
curves and groups, one might obtain something more interesting. Another
time I\’ll tell what I got starting from Klein\’s quartic (on which the
simple group $PSL_2(\mathbb{F}_7)$ acts) when the situation was sexed-up
to the sporadic simple Mathieu group $M_{24}$ (of which
$PSL_2(\mathbb{F}_7)$ is a maximal subgroup).

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