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moduli spaces

In [the previous part][1] we saw that moduli spaces of suitable representations
of the quiver $\xymatrix{\vtx{} \ar[rr] & & \vtx{}
\ar@(ur,dr)} $ locally determine the moduli spaces of
vectorbundles over smooth projective curves. There is yet another
classical problem related to this quiver (which also illustrates the
idea of looking at families of moduli spaces rather than individual
ones) : _linear control systems_. Such a system with an $n$ dimensional
_state space_ and $m$ _controls_ (or inputs) is determined by the
following system of linear differential equations $ \frac{d x}{d t}
= A.x + B.u$ where $x(t) \in \mathbb{C}^n$ is the state of the system at
time $t$, $u(t) \in \mathbb{C}^m$ is the control-vector at time $t$ and $A \in
M_n(\mathbb{C}), B \in M_{n \times m}(\mathbb{C})$ are the matrices describing the
evolution of the system $\Sigma$ (after fixing bases in the state- and
control-space). That is, $\Sigma$ determines a representation of the
above quiver of dimension-vector $\alpha = (m,n)$
$\xymatrix{\vtx{m} \ar[rr]^B & & \vtx{n} \ar@(ur,dr)^A} $
Whereas in control theory (see for example Allen Tannenbaum\’s Lecture
Notes in Mathematics 845 for a mathematical introduction) it is natural
to call two systems equivalent when they only differ up to base change
in the state-space, one usually fixes the control knobs so it is not
natural to allow for base change in the control-space. So, at first
sight the control theoretic problem of classifying equivalent systems is
not the same problem as classifying representations of the quiver up to
isomorphism. Fortunately, there is an elegant way round this which is
called _deframing_. That is, for a fixed number $m$ of controls one
considers the quiver $Q_f$ having precisely $m$ arrows from the first to
the second vertex $\xymatrix{\vtx{1} \ar@/^4ex/[rr]^{B_1}
\ar@/^/[rr]^{B_2} \ar@/_3ex/[rr]_{B_m} & & \vtx{n} \ar@(ur,dr)^A} $
and the system $\Sigma$ does determine a representation of this new
quiver of dimension vector $\beta=(1,n)$ by assigning to the arrows the
different columns of the matrix $B$. Isomorphism classes of these
quiver-representations do correspond precisely to equivalence classes of
linear control systems. In [part 4][1] we introduced stable and
semi-stable representations. In this framed-quiver setting call a
representation $(A,B_1,\ldots,B_m)$ stable if there is no proper
subrepresentation of dimension vector $(1,p)$ for some $p \lneq n$.
Perhaps remarkable this algebraic notion has a counterpart in
system-theory : the systems corresponding to stable
quiver-representations are precisely the completely controllable
systems. That is, those which can be brought to any wanted state by
varying the controls. Hence, the moduli space
$M^s_{(1,n)}(Q_f,\theta)$ classifying stable representations is
exactly the moduli space of completely controllable linear systems
studied in control theory. For an excellent account of this moduli space
one can read the paper [Introduction to moduli spaces associated to
quivers by [Christof Geiss][2]. Fixing the number $m$ of controls but
varying the dimensions of teh state-spaces one would like to take all
the moduli spaces $ \bigsqcup_n~M^s_{(1,n)}(Q_f,\theta)$
together as they are all determined by the same formally smooth algebra
$\mathbb{C} Q_f$. This was done in a joint paper with [Markus Reineke][3] called
[Canonical systems and non-commutative geometry][4] in which we prove
that this disjoint union can be identified with the _infinite
Grassmannian_ $ \bigsqcup_n~M^s_{(1,n)}(Q_f,\theta) =
\mathbf{Gras}_m(\infty)$ of $m$-dimensional subspaces of an
infinite dimensional space. This result can be seen as a baby-version of
George Wilson\’s result relating the disjoint union of Calogero-Moser
spaces to the _adelic_ Grassmannian. But why do we stress this
particular quiver so much? This will be partly explained [next time][5].

[1]: http://www.neverendingbooks.org/index.php?p=350
[2]: http://www.matem.unam.mx/~christof/
[3]: http://wmaz1.math.uni-wuppertal.de/reineke/
[4]: http://www.arxiv.org/abs/math.AG/0303304
[5]: http://www.neverendingbooks.org/index.php?p=352

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